Managed realignment (bank)

Effectiveness for Biological Quality Elements

Currently there is no published evidence that Bank Realignment provides direct benefits to the BQEs of phytoplankton, macroalgae, angiosperms, benthic/macro invertebrates and fish due to the small number of cases in which this technique of Managed Realignment has been implemented. However, Bank Realignment would be expected to provide direct benefit to macro invertebrates in particular through the creation of a wide intertidal mudflat area. Bank Realignment may also benefit angiosperms through pioneer saltmarsh creation where wave action is reduced.

Initial findings from the post scheme monitoring programme for the bank realignment scheme at Chowder Ness on the Humber Esutary show that there has been an overall trend of sediment accretion across the site. The main objective of the scheme was to create 10.5ha of mudflat to support a wide variety of invertebrates and it is largely held that the scheme has been successful. However, the pre-existing island of saltmarsh in the fronting intertidal area at the eastern entrance to the realignment site has been reduced in extent, presumably through increased tidal flows in this area (ABPmer, 2009).

Academic references

Andrews, J.E., Burgess, D., Cave, R.R., Jickells, T.D., Parkes, D.J., Turner, R.K. (2006) Biogeochemical value of managed realignment, Humber Estuary, UK. Science of the total environment. 371 (1). Pp 19-30.

Atkinson, P.W., Crooks, S., Grant, A. and Rehfisch, M. M. (2001) The success of creation and restoration schemes in producing intertidal habitat suitable for waterbirds. English Nature Research Report 425.

Deboeuf, C. and Herrier, J-L. (2002)The restoration of mudflats, saltmarshes and dunes on the eastern bank of the Yzer-rivermouth, Nieuwpoort. In: Littoral 2002, 6th International Symposium. A Multi-disciplinary Symposium on Coastal Zone Research,, eds.Veloso-Gomes, F., Taveira-Pinto, F. & das Neves, L.Eurocoast & EUCC - The Coastal Union, 201-202.

French, P.W. (2005) Managed realignment: The developing story of a comparatively new approach to soft engineering. Estuarine, coastal and shelf science. 67 (3). Pp 409-423.

Garbutt, A., Boorman, L., Laurence, A. (2009) Managed realignment: recreating intertidal habitats on formerly reclaimed land. In: Perillo, G.M.E. (Ed). Coastal Wetlands: An integrated ecosystem approach. Elsevier. Pp763-785.

Mai, S. and Zimmerman, C. (2002) Diked forelands and their importance in coastal zone management. Proceedings of the Hydro 2002 Conference (Kiel), 222-235.

Rupp, S. and Nicholls, R.J. (2002) Managed Realignment of Coastal Flood Defences: a comparison between England and Germany. Flood Hazard Research Centre, Middlesex University.

Symonds, A.M. and Collins, M.B. (2007) The establishment of a temporary creek system, in response to managed coastal realignment: The Wash, UK. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, Published online May 2007. 14p. 

van den Bergh, E., Vandevoorde, B., Verbessem, I., Spanoghe, G., Lionard, M., Muylaert, K., De Regge, N., Soors, J., De Belder, W., Piesschaert, F., Meire, P. (2005) Tidal wetland restoration at Ketenisse polder (Schelde Estuary, Belgium): developments in the first year. In: Herrier, J.-L. et al. (eds.). Proceedings ‘Dunes and Estuaries 2005’: International Conference on nature restoration practices in European coastal habitats, Koksijde, Belgium 19-23 September 2005. VLIZ Special Publication 19, 521-533.

Wolters, M., Garbutt, A., Bakker, J.P. (2005) Salt-marsh restoration: evaluating the success of de-embankments in north-west Europe. Biological Conservation. 123 (22). Pp 249-268.